Đảo Ngữ Trong Tiếng Anh - Phần 2

Đảo Ngữ Trong Tiếng Anh – Phần 2

ĐẢO BỘ PHẬN
1. Trong câu có các mệnh đề với “as, though, no matter how, however” . Thường đưa : n/adj./verb/adv lên trước .
Child as he is, she knows a great deal.
Youngest as he is , he studies best in our class.
However tired he is, he continues to work.
Again as he tired, he failed.
Hard as he works, he makes little progress.
Try as he does, she will never pass it.
Search as they would, they could find no sign.
Much as he likes the girl, he quarrels with her sometimes.
Young though he is, he has won the Nobel Prize.
Lưu ý: Khi có Adj/adv + as/though đi đầu câu (xem ở DCadv)
– Adj/adv còn đứng sau liên từ “as/though” mang nghĩa “mặc dù”. Khi đó, nếu S là đại từ nhân xưng thì đặt V xuôi, nhưng nếu là N thì phải đảo động từ to be lên trước.
2. Khi các trạng từ phủ định được đặt ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh Các trạng từ phủ định
Never: không bao giờ
At no time: không khi nào
Rarely: hiếm khi
Seldom: hiếm khi
By no means: hoàn toàn không
Hardly (ever): hiếm khi
Little: hầu như không
Not once: không một lần nào
Nowhere: không nơi nào
No longer: không…nữa
Not often: không thường xuyên
Scarcely (ever): chắc chắn là không
Barely (ever): không
In/under no circumstances: dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không
On no account = for no reasons: dù bất cứ lí do gì cũng không
In no way: không sao có thể
Ex:
– He never knew she came from a rich family.
ĐN1:- At no time did he know she came from a rich family.
ĐN2:- Never did he know she came from a rich family.
– Keith certainly cant be held responsible for the accident.
ĐN:- In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.
– Passengers arent permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances.
ĐN:- Under/In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors.
– He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job.
ĐN:- No longer does he works as an accountant. He …………………………..
3. Khi mệnh đề trạng ngữ hoặc trạng ngữ theo sau only
– Ví dụ:
Only after: chỉ sau khi
Only by chance: một cách tình cờ, ngẫu nhiên
Only once: chỉ một lần
Only today: chỉ hôm nay
Only then: chỉ sau khi đó
Only yesterday: chỉ hôm qua
Only on rare occasions: chỉ ít khi
Only with difficulty: chỉ với khó khăn
Only by luck: chỉ với may mắn
Only if: chỉ nếu
only by doing..
Only when: chỉ khi
Only by
3.1. Only + adverb
– Ví dụ:
• Only once did the manager issue overtime paychecks. (Người quản lí này gần như không bao giờ phát tiền lương làm ngoài giờ)
• Only by chance did I meet him. (Tôi gặp anh ấy một cách tình cờ)
• Only today didn’t I go to school. (Chỉ hôm nay là tôi không đi học)
3.2. Only + DCadv
– Hiện tượng đảo ngữ xảy ra ở mệnh đề chính.
• Only after we placed an ad in local newspapers, could we receive some applications.
• Only when you grow up, can you understand it. (Chỉ khi bạn lớn lên thì bạn mới hiểu được nó)
• Only if you tell me the truth, can I forgive you. (Chỉ nếu bạn nói sự thật cho tôi thì tôi mới có thể tha thứ cho bạn)
4. Khi Not until / till được đặt ở đầu câu
– Not until / till + S+V, auxiliary + S + V + O
• Not until you finish your homework, can you go out. (Không cho tới khi làm xong bài tập về nhà, con mới được đi chơi)
5. Khi Many a + N (biết bao nhiêu) đặt ở đầu câu
– Many a + N số ít đặt ở đầu câu với tư cách là tân ngữ hoặc trạng ngữ (xem thêm bài Many)
• Many a word of love have I received from him, I have not decided. (tân ngữ)
• Many a time have I said a word of love to her, I didn’t receive any feedback. (trạng ngữ)
6. ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO ………….. THAT VÀ SUCH ………. THAT :
SO ……….. THAT :
– He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.
ĐN:- So hard did he worked that he forgot his lunch.
– The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN1:- So interesting is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN2:- Such is the interest of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
– He bought so many books that he couldn’t read them all.
ĐN: So many books did he buy that he couldn’t read them all.
– Alice has so much homework that she can’t finish it all.
ĐN: So much homework does Alice have that she can’t finish it all.
Note: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE N không dùng SUCH.
– SUCH ……………. THAT :
– It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.
ĐN:- Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy.
Note: trong trường hợp BE SO MUCH/GREAT đổi thành SUCH BE NOUN
– The force of the storm was so great that trees were uprooted.
ĐN:- Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted.
7. ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …………. BUT ALSO (không những mà còn)
NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường
– He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well.
ĐN:- Not only is he good at English but he can also draw very well.
8. ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTILL/TILL (THEN/LATER)
NOT UNTILL/TILL mệnh đề thường mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến khi)
– I didnt know where I was untill I asked a passer-by.
ĐN:- Not untill I asked a passer-by did I know where I was.
NOT UNTILL/TILL THEN/LATER mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến lúc đó/sau này)
– I didnt recognize him untill later.
ĐN:- Not untill later did I recognize him.
9. ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER/NOR VÀ SO:
– They dont like chicken, and neither/nor do I.
– She can play the guitar, and so can I.
* ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER………………..NOR :
– There is neither excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
ĐN: Neither is there excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
10. ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG SO SÁNH VỚI AS VÀ THAN
– The cake was excellent, as the coffee was.
ĐN:- The cake was excellent, as was the coffee.
– I thought, as my friend did, that the exam would be difficult.
ĐN:-I thought, as did my friend, that the exam would be difficult.
– He has more money than you do.
ĐN:- He has more money than do you.
11. ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN
1-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1:
IF S V ……. ———> SHOULD S V ……….
– If you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
ĐN:- Should you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
– If anybody phones me, please tell them Im busy.
ĐN:- Should anybody phone me, please tell them Im busy.
2-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2:
a-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ TO BE:
IF S WERE ………………….. —————-> WERE S ………………..
– If I were you, I wouldnt do that. ĐN:-Were I you, I wouldnt do that.
b-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG:
IF S P/V2 ………………… —————> WERE S TO V ……………
– If he worked more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.
ĐN:-Were he to work more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.
3-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3:
IF S HAD PP/V3 ……………………… ——————-> HAD S PP/V3 ………….
-If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
ĐN:-Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ từ.
– If you dont believe what I said, ask your mother.
ĐN:- Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother.
– If she were not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
ĐN:- Were she not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
– If I hadnt seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
ĐN:- Had I not seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
12. Khi dùng với No sooner … than … = Hardly/Scarcely … when
– Xem ở bài DCadv
– Ví dụ:
• No sooner he arrives than he wants to leave.
• Scarcely had they fell in love each other when they got married.
13. I-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NO VÀ NOT
– I wil lend you no money from now on. ĐN:- No money will I lend you from now on.
– I wont lend you any money from now on. ĐN:- Not any money will I lend you from now on.
14. Nhóm câu mở đầu bằng các từ và cụm từ sau “often, always, once, many a time ,now and then, every other day”
Often do I tell her about my life here.
Many a time has he helped me with my experiment.
15. Đảo ngữ được dùng trong thức giả định (bàng thái cách) loại 1
– Be it cheap or expensive. I have to buy it (Cho dù đắt hay rẻ thì em vẫn phải mua). ->
16. ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO:
– At no time : chưa từng bao giờ
– In no way : không còn cách nào
– On no condition : tuyệt đối không
– On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì
– Under/In no circumstances:trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.
– For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì.
– No longer: không còn nữa
Ex:
– He never knew she came from a rich family.
ĐN1:- At no time did he know she came from a rich family.
ĐN2:- Never did he know she came from a rich family.
– Keith certainly cant be held responsible for the accident.
ĐN:- In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.
– Passengers arent permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances.
ĐN:- Under/In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors.
– He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job.
ĐN:- No longer does he works as an accountant. He …………………………..

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