Toàn bộ ngữ pháp về Comparison (so sánh) sử dụng trong kỳ thi Toeic
I. Ôn tập lại ngữ pháp về Comparison (so sánh)
1. Equal Comparison (So sánh bằng)
A. Be+ as +adjective +as
Ex1 : She is as tall as me.
Ex2 : The reviewers agree that the data in the report is as reliable as other data they test.
B. Verb + as +adverb + as
Ex3 : the facility enables us to process waste water as efficiently as possible
Ex4 : this facility helps me to clean the office more easily than before.
2. Comparatives (So sánh hơn)
In comparatives, the structure comparative of adjective/ adverb + than is usually used. Therefore, if you see than in a sentence, the comparative form of an adjective or adverb must come before it.
A. Adjective/ adverb + er + than.
B. More+ adjective/ adverb +than.
We form comparatives four ways:
– If the adjective has one syllable (cheap), we add –er to it (cheaper) and follow the word with “than” (cheaper than)
ex1: Give the high price of gasoline lately, renting a car is not cheaper than taking the train.
– If the adjective has two syllables and ends in –y (friendly), we change the “y” to “I” and add –er (friendlier) and follow the word with “than” (friendlier than). We have other endings “et, er, ow” following the same rule.
ex2: My supervisor is friendlier than my manager.
– If the adjective has two or more syllables (interesting), we put “more” before it (more interesting) and follow the word with “than” (more interesting than)
Ex3 : English is more interesting than Maths
3. Superlatives (So sánh hơn nhất)
We use superlatives when we talk about three or more things
A. The+ adjective/ adverb+ est
B. The+ most+ adjective/ adverb.
Of the five bosses I’ve worked for in my career, Mr. Honeywell is the friendliest. Note:
We form the superlatives in similar ways:
– If the adjective has one syllable (great), we put “the” before it and add –est to it (the greatest)
– If the adjective has two syllable and ends in “y” (friendly), we put “the” before it, change the “y” to “I” and add – est it (the friendliest). We have other endings “et,er,ow” following the same rule.
– If the adjective has two or more syllable (interesting), we put “the most” before it (the most interesting).
4. Irregular comparison
|Good/well||better than||the best|
|Bad/ill||worse than||the worst|
|Many/much||more than||the most|
|Litter||less than||the least|
|Far||farther/further than||the farthest/the furthest|
The picture came out well
The picture came out better than the first one
The picture came out the best of all the other pictures.
TỔNG HỢP CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP HAY THI VỀ SO SÁNH
1. Trường hợp so sánh dùng TO thay cho THAN.
Đối với các tính từ đặc biệt kết thúc bằng OR ta không dùng THAN trong so sánh hơn mà dùng TO.
Inferior to Junior to Prefer to
prior to senior to superior to
Ex 1 : Our new line of products is far superior to existing lines.
Ex 2 : You should arrive at least one hour prior to boarding.
2. Trạng từ được dùng để nhấn mạnh trong so sánh hơn và so sánh hơn nhất. Much/ far/ a lot/ even/ far/ still/ a little/ much
Ex 1 : The hotel is far bigger than my house.
Ex 2 : Our delivery service is much quicker/ than that of others
Ex 3 : Attendance figures of the new employees at the staff meeting are much higher than expected.
3. Trường hợp so sánh kép, càng…. càng
The + so sánh, the + so sánh
Ex 1 : The closer you live to a city, the more expensive your home insurance premiums will be.
4. Trường hợp so sánh nhất với 2 đối tượng
Of the two+ N. Subject+ verb+ the+ so sánh hơn
Ex 1.Of the two candidates, John is the better qualified for that job.
Ex 2: Of the two subjects, English is the more interesting one.